GRADES K-3   
LIFE PROCESSES

KINDERGARTEN
Standard K.6 - The student will investigate and understand basic needs and life processes of plants and animals. Key concepts include

a)
      living things change as they grow, and they need food, water, and air to survive;
b)
      plants and animals live and die (go through a life cycle); and
c)
      offspring of plants and animals are similar but not identical to their parents and to one another.
1ST GRADE   Standard 1.4     The student will investigate and understand that plants have life needs and functional parts and can be classified according to certain characteristics. Key concepts include
a)
      needs (food, air, water, light, and a place to grow);
b)
      parts (seeds, roots, stems, leaves, blossoms, fruits); and
c)
      characteristics (edible/non-edible, flowering/non-flowering, evergreen/deciduous).
1ST GRADERS SHOULD LEARN:
The concepts developed in this standard include the following:
•     Plants have basic needs, including food, air, water, light, and a place to grow.
•     Plants have different structures that serve different functions in growth, survival, and reproduction.
•     The functions of plant parts include roots holding plants in place and absorbing water, seeds making new plants, leaves making food for the plant, and stems holding the plants upright and transporting materials up and down the plant.
•     Plants can be categorized by their different characteristics, such as edible/non-edible, flowering/non-flowering, and evergreen/deciduous. Students do not need to know the terms non-edible, edible, evergreen, and deciduous. The focus should be on the concept, not the terminology.
AND SHOULD BE ABLE TO:
•     conduct simple experiments/investigations related to plant needs by changing one variable (food, air, water, light, or place to grow) at a time. Students do not need to know the term variable.
•     create and interpret a model/drawing of a plant, including seeds, roots, stems, leaves, blossoms, and fruits.
•     identify the functions of the seed, root, stem, and leaf.
•      classify plants by the characteristics of edible/non-edible, flowering/non-flowering, and evergreen/deciduous, using tables, charts, and picture graphs.

 

Standard 1.5    The student will investigate and understand that animals, including people, have life needs and specific physical characteristics and can be classified according to certain characteristics. Key concepts include
a)
      life needs (air, food, water, and a suitable place to live);
b)
      physical characteristics (body coverings, body shape, appendages, and methods of movement); and
c)
      other characteristics (wild/tame, water homes/land homes).

1ST GRADERS SHOULD LEARN:
•    Animals, including people, have basic life needs, including air, food, water, and a suitable place to live.
•    Body coverings include hair, fur, feathers, scales, and shells.
•    Appendages are parts , such as arms, legs, wings, fins, and tails, that extend from the main body and that have specific functions. Students do not need to know the term appendage. The focus should be on the concept, not the terminology.
•    Methods of movement may include walking, crawling, flying, and swimming.
•    Simple ways to classify animals are whether they are wild or tame and whether they live on land or in water.
 
AND BE ABLE TO:
•    make and communicate observations of live animals, including people, about their needs, physical characteristics, and where they live.
•    describe the life needs of animals, including air, food, water, and a suitable place to live.
•    Identify and chart simple characteristics by which animals can be classified, including body coverings (hair, fur, feathers, scales, and shells), body shape, appendages (arms, legs, wings, fins, and tails), methods of movement (walking, crawling, flying, and swimming), wild or tame, and water homes or land homes.
•    distinguish between wild animals (raccoon, hawk, squirrel, shark) and tame animals (dog, cat, sheep) and recognize examples of each.
•    infer types of animal homes (water or land), using the physical characteristics of the animals, such as scales and fins that allow fish to live and move in water or fur and legs that allow dogs to live and move on land.
•    classify animals by where they live (their homes).
2ND GRADE   Standard 2.4   The student will investigate and understand that plants and animals undergo a series of orderly changes in their life cycles. Key concepts include

a)      some animals (frogs and butterflies) undergo distinct stages during their lives, while others generally resemble their parents; and

b)      flowering plants undergo many changes, from the formation of the flower to the development of the fruit.

2ND GRADERS SHOULD LEARN:
·
     
Throughout their lives, plants and animals undergo a series of orderly and identifiable changes.
·
     
Changes in living things over time occur in cycles and differ among the various plants and animals.
·
     
Some animals, such as frogs and butterflies, go through distinct stages as they mature to adults. Other animals, such as deer, resemble their parents from birth to maturity and do not have distinct stages.

·      An important part of the life cycle of a flowering plant is the formation of the flower to the development of the fruit.
AND SHOULD BE ABLE TO:
·
     
describe changes in the life cycle of a frog and a butterfly.
·
     
identify and describe changes in a plant from flower (blossom) to fruit.
·
     
compare and contrast life cycles of a frog and a butterfly.

·      construct and interpret models/diagrams of animal and plant life cycles.


 

3RD GRADE   Standard 3.4   The student will investigate and understand that behavioral and physical adaptations allow animals to respond to life needs. Key concepts include

a)      methods of gathering and storing food, finding shelter, defending themselves, and rearing young; and

b)      hibernation, migration, camouflage, mimicry, instinct, and learned behavior.

3RD GRADERS SHOULD LEARN:
·
     
Physical adaptations help animals survive in their environment. Examples include camouflage and mimicry.
·
     
Behavioral adaptations allow animals to respond to life needs. Examples include hibernation, migration, instinct, and learned behavior.
·
     
In order to survive, animals act in different ways to gather and store food, find shelter, defend themselves, and rear their young.
·
     
Some animals go into a deep winter sleep in which their body activities slow down and they can live off stored food (hibernation).
·
     
Some animals go on a long-distance journey from one place to another as seasons change (migration).
·
     
Various animals blend into their environments to protect themselves from enemies (camouflage).

·      Some animals look like other animals to avoid being eaten (mimicry). This adaptation helps protect them from their predators. (For example, the viceroy butterfly tastes good to birds, but the monarch butterfly tastes bad. Because the viceroy looks like the monarch butterfly, it is safer from predators.)
·
     
Some animals are born with natural behaviors that they need in order to survive in their environments. These behaviors are not learned but are instinctive, such as a beaver building a dam or a spider spinning a web.

·      Some behaviors need to be taught in order for the animal to survive, such as a bear cub learning to hunt.
AND SHOULD BE ABLE TO:
·
     
describe and explain the terms hibernation, migration, camouflage, mimicry, instinct, and learned behavior.
·
     
give examples of methods that animals use to gather and store food, find shelter, defend themselves, and rear young.
·
     
compare the physical characteristics of animals, and explain how the animals are adapted to a certain environment.
·
     
explain how an animal’s behavioral adaptations help it live in its specific habitat.
·
     
design and construct a model of a habitat for an animal with a specific adaptation.
·
     
distinguish between physical and behavioral adaptations of animals.
·
     
create (model) a camouflage pattern for an animal living in a specific dry-land or water-related environment. (Relates to 3.6.)
·
     
compare and contrast instinct and learned behavior.