GRADES K-3   
EARTH / SPACE SYSTEMS

KINDERGARTEN     Standard K.7 - The student will investigate and understand that shadows occur when light is blocked by an object. Key concepts include
a)
      shadows occur in nature when sunlight is blocked by an object; and
b)
      shadows can be produced by blocking artificial light sources.

1ST GRADE      Standard 1.6
The student will investigate and understand the basic relationships between the sun and the Earth. Key concepts include
a)      the sun is the source of heat and light that warms the land, air, and water; and
b)      night and day are caused by the rotation of the Earth.
1ST GRADERS SHOULD LEARN:
     
The sun is the source of light on Earth.
     
The sun provides heat, which warms the land, air, and water on Earth.
     
The rotation of Earth means that Earth turns once a day. The part of Earth facing the sun has daytime and the part not facing the sun has nighttime.
     
Rotation of the Earth causes day and night.
AND SHOULD BE ABLE TO:
      infer that sunlight striking an object makes the object warmer.
      conduct simple experiments to show how sunlight changes the temperature of land, air, and water.
      demonstrate and describe the concept of rotation.
      comprehend that day and night are caused by Earthís rotation.
      compare and contrast day and night by characteristic changes in temperature and light.
      model the rotation of Earth and its physical relationship to the sun.
      interpret the relationship between the sunís position in the sky and the general time of day. This includes the sunís relative position in the morning (East), at noon, and in the late afternoon (West).
2ND GRADE      Standard 2.6    The student will investigate and understand basic types, changes, and patterns of weather. Key concepts include

a)      temperature, wind, precipitation, drought, flood, and storms; and
b)
      the uses and importance of measuring and recording weather data.

2ND GRADERS SHOULD LEARN:
     
The Earthís weather changes continuously from day to day.
     
Changes in the weather are characterized by daily differences in wind, temperature, and precipitation. Precipitation occurs when water, previously evaporated, condenses out of the air and changes state from a gas to a liquid (rain) or to a solid (snow or sleet).
     
Extremes in the weather, such as too little or too much precipitation, can result in droughts or floods.
     
Storms have powerful winds, which may be accompanied by rain, snow, or other kinds of precipitation.
     
Weather data is collected and recorded using instruments. This information is very useful for predicting weather and determining weather patterns.
     Weather influences human activity.
AND BE ABLE TO:
     
observe and describe types of precipitation, including rain, snow, and ice (sleet and hail).
     
observe and describe precipitation in terms of evaporation and condensation of water.
     
observe and record daily weather conditions, such as sunny, cloudy, windy, rainy, or snowy.
     
describe weather in terms of temperature, wind, and precipitation.
     
measure and record weather data, using weather instruments, including a thermometer, rain gauge, and weather vane (standard English and metric measures).
     
record and interpret daily temperature, using a graph with numbered axes.
     
observe and describe seasonal weather patterns and local variations.
     
identify common types of storms. Examples include hurricanes, tornadoes, blizzards, and thunderstorms.
     
compare and contrast droughts and floods.
evaluate the influence of daily weather conditions on personal activities and dress.
3RD GRADE    Standard 3.7   The student will investigate and understand the major components of soil, its origin, and importance to plants and animals including humans. Key concepts include

a)      soil provides the support and nutrients necessary for plant growth;

b)      topsoil is a natural product of subsoil and bedrock;

c)      rock, clay, silt, sand, and humus are components of soils; and

d)      soil is a natural resource and should be conserved.

3RD GRADERS SHOULD LEARN:
     
Soil is important because many plants grow in soil, and it provides support and nutrients for the plants.
     
Over many years, weather, water, and living things help break down rocks and create soil (weathering).
     
Nutrients are materials that plants and animals need to live and grow.
     
Rock, clay, silt, sand, and humus are components of soil.
     
Topsoil is the upper soil surface and a natural product of subsoil and bedrock. Topsoil is best for plant growth.
     
Subsoil and bedrock are layers of soil under the topsoil that are formed over a long period of time by the action of water.
     
Subsoil and bedrock are not as good for growing plants as is topsoil.
     
Humus is decayed matter in soil. It adds nutrients to the soil. It is located in the topsoil.
     
Clay contains tiny particles of soil that hold water well and provides nutrients.
     
Sand is made up of small grains of worn-down rock, has few nutrients, and does not hold water well.
Silt
is made up of very small broken pieces of rock. Its particles are larger than clay and smaller than sand.
Since soil takes a long time to form, it should be conserved, not wasted.
AND SHOULD BE ABLE TO:
     
observe and recognize that soil, as a natural resource, provides the support and nutrients necessary for plant growth.
     
explain how soil forms over time.
     
analyze and describe the different components of soil, including rock fragments, clay, silt, sand, and humus.
     
comprehend the key terminology related to soil, including humus, nutrients, topsoil, and bedrock.
     
interpret and illustrate a basic diagram showing major soil layers, including bedrock, subsoil, and topsoil.
     
design an investigation to compare how different types of soil affect plant growth. This includes organizing data in tables and constructing simple graphs.
     
collect, chart, and analyze data on soil conservation on the school grounds.
      evaluate the importance of soil to people.

      describe how soil can be conserved.