SOL VS.2 Geography- Rivers, Regions and Indian Language Groups
VS.2a - Virginia and the Bordering States
What large bodies of water border Virginia?
Bordering bodies of water
What states border Virginia?
VS.2b - Regions of Virginia
What are the five geographic regions in
Virginia? How do they differ? Where are they located?
Terms to know
Fall Line: The
natural border between the Coastal Plain (Tidewater) and Piedmont regions,
where waterfalls prevent further travel on the river
five geographic regions
Piedmont (land at the foot
Blue Ridge Mountains
Part of Appalachian mountain system
Located between the Piedmont and Valley and Ridge regions
Source of many rivers
Located west of Blue Ridge Mountains
Appalachian Plateau (Plateau: Area of elevated land that is flat
Only a small part of plateau located in Virginia
|Rivers of Virginia - VS.2c|
Which water features were important to the early history of Virginia?
Provided transportation links between Virginia and other places (e.g., Europe, Africa, Caribbean)
Provided a safe harbor
Was a source of food and transportation
Flows into the Chesapeake Bay
Richmond and Jamestown located along the James River
Flows into the Chesapeake Bay
Yorktown located along the York River
Flows into the Chesapeake Bay
Alexandria located along the Potomac River
Flows into the Chesapeake Bay
Fredericksburg located on the Rappahannock River
How did water features influence the development of Virginia?
How did the flow of rivers affect the settlement of Virginia?
Water features were important to the early history of Virginia.
Many early Virginia cities developed along the Fall Line, the natural border between the Tidewater and Piedmont regions where the land rises sharply and where the waterfalls prevent further travel on the river.
Each river was a source of food and provided a pathway for exploration and settlement of Virginia.
Rivers flow downhill to the sea.
What is a peninsula?
Peninsula: A piece of land bordered by water on three sides.
Where is the Eastern Shore located?
The Eastern Shore is a peninsula bordered by the Chesapeake Bay to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. The Chesapeake Bay separates the Eastern Shore from the mainland of Virginia.
Indians and Language Groups - VS.2d
American Indians (First Americans) were the first people who
lived in Virginia. They lived in all areas of the state.
Why are First Americans called Indians?
What evidence is there that American Indians
(First Americans) lived in all areas of the state?
What were the three major language groups found in Virginia, and where was each located?
Three major language groups
Algonquian was spoken primarily in the Tidewater region; the Powhatans were members of this group.
Siouan was spoken primarily in the Piedmont region.
Iroquoian was spoken in Southwestern Virginia and in Southern Virginia near what is today North Carolina; the Cherokee were a part of this group.
|VS.2e Indians Adapt to Virginia Land and Climate|
What are some characteristics of Virginias climate?
Climate in Virginia
What are some ways Virginias American Indians adapted to the climate and interacted with their environment to meet their basic needs?
Adaptation to environment
The kinds of food they ate, the clothing they wore, and the shelters they had depended upon the seasons.
Foods changed with the seasons.
In winter, they hunted birds and animals.
In spring, they fished and picked berries.
In summer, they grew crops (beans, corn, squash).
In fall, they harvested crops.
Animal skins (deerskin) were used for clothing.
Shelter was made from materials around them.
VS.3a Jamestown and Reasons for Colony
What were the reasons for English colonization
England wanted to establish an American colony to increase her wealth and power.
England hoped to find silver and gold in America.
An American settlement would furnish raw materials that could not be grown or obtained in England, while opening new markets for trade.
What were the reasons why the Jamestown settlers came to America?
The first permanent English
settlement in America was Jamestown, founded in 1607 as an economic
Jamestown was primarily an economic venture.
The stockholders of the Virginia Company of London financed the settlement of Jamestown.
Jamestown became the first permanent English settlement in North America in 1607.
Where is Jamestown located?
When the settlers arrived in 1607, Jamestown was located on a narrow peninsula bordered on three sides by the James River. Today, Jamestown is located on an island in the James River.
Why did the settlers choose the site at Jamestown?
Reasons for site choice
The location could be easily defended from attack by sea (Spanish).
The water along the shore was deep enough for ships to dock.
They believed they had a good supply of fresh water.
What was the importance of the charters of the Virginia Company of London to the Jamestown settlement?
Importance of Virginia charters
The King of England granted charters to the Virginia Company of London.
The charters gave the Virginia Company the right to establish a settlement in North America.
The first charter of the Virginia Company of London established companies to begin colonies in the New World.
The charters extended English rights to the colonists
VS.3d Virginia Assembly (1619) -First Representative Legislative Body
As Jamestown grew, the system
of government evolved.
System of government
In 1619, the governor of
Virginia called a meeting of the Virginia Assembly.
The Assembly included two citizen representatives (called burgesses) from
each of the divisions of Virginia, the governors council, and the governor.
(At that time, only adult men were considered citizens.)
What was the Virginia House of Burgesses, and why was it important?
Virginia House of Burgesses
The Virginia House of Burgesses was the first elected legislative body in America giving settlers the opportunity to control their own government.
It became the General Assembly of Virginia, which continues to this day.
What was the impact of the arrival of women on the Jamestown settlement?
became a more diverse colony by 1620.
What was the impact of the arrival of Africans
on the Jamestown settlement?
The English colonists found life in Jamestown harder than they had expected.
What hardships did the Jamestown settlers face?
Hardships faced by the settlers
The site they chose to live on was marshy and lacked safe drinking water.
The settlers lacked some skills necessary to provide for themselves.
Many settlers died of starvation and disease.
What changes took place to ensure survival?
Changes that ensured survival
The arrival of two supply ships, the forced work program and strong leadership of Captain John Smith, and the emphasis on self-sustaining agriculture ensured survival of the colony.
How did the Powhatan people and the English settlers interact?
The Powhatan people contributed to the survival of the Jamestown settlers
in several ways.
Pocahontas, daughter of Chief Powhatan, believed the English and American Indians (First Americans) could live in harmony.
Pocahontas began a friendship with the colonists that helped them survive.
The Powhatans introduced new crops to the English, including corn and tobacco.
Why did the relationship between the Jamestown settlers and the Powhatans change?
The Powhatan people realized the English settlement would continue to grow.
The Powhatans saw the colonists as invaders that would take over their land.
The success of tobacco as a cash crop transformed life in the Virginia colony and encouraged slavery.
Cash crop: A crop that is grown to sell for money rather than for use by the growers
What effect did agriculture have on the Virginia colony?
The economy of the Virginia colony depended on agriculture as a primary source of wealth.
Tobacco became the most profitable agricultural product.
Tobacco was sold in England as a
How did agriculture in the Virginia colony influence the institution of slavery?
The successful planting of tobacco depended on a reliable and inexpensive source of labor.
Large numbers of Africans were brought to the colony against their will to work as slaves on the plantations.
The Virginia colony became dependent on slave labor, and the dependence lasted a long time.
VS.4b Immigrant Settlements and Cultural Landscapes
How do cultural landscapes reflect beliefs, customs, and architecture of people?
Whenever people settle an area, they change the landscape to reflect the beliefs, customs, and architecture of their culture. Examples of cultural landscapes include
Places of worship (e.g., churches)
Place names reflecting culture
American Indian (First American)Roanoke
Where did the various cultural groups settle?
English settled primarily in Tidewater and Piedmont regions.
Germans and Scotch-Irish settled primarily in the Shenandoah Valley, which was along the migration route.
Africans settled primarily in the Tidewater and Piedmont regions, where agriculture required a great deal of labor.
American Indians were
primarily in the Tidewater and Piedmont regions and the Appalachian
Plateau, where their traditional homelands were located.
How did the relationship between the Virginia colony and England change over time?
Although a colony of England, Virginia developed a unique culture different from that of England.
Migration and living in
new areas caused people to adapt old customs to their new
Geographical factors often influence the location of a capital.
What are some factors that influenced the move of the capital from Jamestown to Williamsburg?
Factors related to move from Jamestown to Williamsburg
Drinking water was contaminated by seepage of salt water.
Dirty living conditions caused diseases.
Williamsburg was situated at a higher elevation than Jamestown.
Fire destroyed wooden buildings at Jamestown.
What factors influenced the move of the capital from Williamsburg to Richmond?
Factors related to move from Williamsburg to Richmond
Population was moving westward.
Richmond was a more central location.
Richmonds location was better for trade.
Moving to Richmond increased the distance from attack by the English.
|VS.4d Colonial Economy Barter, no money or banks|
Money was not commonly used in early agricultural societies.
What forms of exchange were used in the Virginia colony?
Terms to know
Money: A medium of exchange (currency, which includes coins and paper bills)
Barter: Trading/exchanging of goods and services without the use of money
Credit: Buying a good or service now and paying for it later
Debt: A good or service owed to another
Saving: Money put away to save or to spend at a later time
Few people had paper money and
coins to use to buy goods and services.