Standard LS.11
Effects of Change
VDOE - Revised 2003 Standards

Standard LS.11
The student will investigate and understand that ecosystems, communities, populations, and organisms are dynamic and change over time (daily, seasonal, and long term). Key concepts include
a) phototropism, hibernation, and dormancy;
b) factors that increase or decrease population size; and
c) eutrophication, climate changes, and catastrophic disturbances.

Overview / Key Concepts

Organisms may exist as members of a population; populations interact with other populations in a community; and communities together with the physical environment form ecosystems.

Changes that affect organisms over time may be daily, seasonal, or long-term.

Plants may respond to light by growing toward it or away from it, a behavior known as phototropism.

Animals may respond to cold conditions with a period of lowered metabolism, a behavior know as hibernation.

Organisms may respond to adverse conditions with a period of lowered or suspended metabolism, a behavior known as dormancy.
A variety of environmental factors may cause the size of a population to increase or decrease. (This requires students to brainstorm examples of factors and predict the possible effects.)

Large-scale changes may affect entire communities and ecosystems.

Such large-scale changes include the addition of excess nutrients to the system (eutrophication), which alters environmental balance; dramatic changes in climate; and catastrophic events, such as fire, drought, flood, and earthquakes.

Knowledge & Skills

relate the responses of organisms to daily, seasonal, or long-term events.

differentiate between ecosystems, communities, populations, and organisms.

predict the effect of climate change on ecosystems, communities, populations, and organisms.
compare and contrast the factors that increase or decrease population size.

predict the effect of large scale changes on ecosystems, communities, populations, and organisms.