Standard LS.13
DNA & Genetics
VDOE - Revised 2003 Standards

Standard LS.13
The student will investigate and understand that organisms reproduce and transmit genetic information to new generations. Key concepts include
a) the role of DNA;
b) the function of genes and chromosomes;
c) genotypes and phenotypes;
d) factors affecting the expression of traits;
e) characteristics that can and cannot be inherited;
f) genetic engineering and its applications; and
g) historical contributions and significance of discoveries related to genetics.

 

DNA is a double helix molecule.

 

Double helix DNA is a molecule that includes different components sugars, nitrogenous bases, and phosphates. One nucleotide
The arrangement of the nitrogenous bases within the double helix forms a chemical code. DNA bases Chromosomes are strands of tightly wound DNA.

 

Chromosome
Genes are sections of a chromosome that carry the code for a particular trait.    

Overview / Key Concepts

DNA is a double helix molecule.


DNA is a molecule that includes different components sugars, nitrogenous bases, and phosphates. The arrangement of the nitrogenous bases within the double helix forms a chemical code.

Chromosomes are strands of tightly wound DNA. Genes are sections of a chromosome that carry the code for a particular trait.

The basic laws of Mendelian genetics explain the transmission of most traits that can be inherited from generation to generation.

Traits that are expressed through genes can be inherited. Characteristics that are acquired through environmental influences, such as injuries or practiced skills, cannot be inherited.

In genetic engineering, the genetic code is manipulated to obtain a desired product.

Genetic engineering has numerous practical applications in medicine, agriculture, and biology.

A series of contributions and discoveries led to the current level of genetic science.

Knowledge & Skills

recognize the appearance of DNA as double helix in shape.

explain that DNA contains coded instructions that store and pass on genetic information from one generation to the next.

demonstrate variation within a single genetic trait.

explain the necessity of DNA replication for the continuity of life.

differentiate between characteristics that can be inherited and those that cannot be inherited.

 
distinguish between dominant and recessive traits.

distinguish between genotype and phenotype.

use Punnett squares to predict the possible combinations of inherited factors resulting from single trait crosses.

identify aspects of genetic engineering and supply examples of applications. Evaluate the examples for possible controversial aspects.

describe the contributions of Mendel, Franklin, and Watson and Crick to our basic understanding of genetics