Standard LS.8
Behaviors of Populations
VDOE - Revised 2003 Standards

Standard LS.8
The student will investigate and understand that interactions exist among members of a population. Key concepts include
a) competition, cooperation, social hierarchy, territorial imperative; and
b) influence of behavior on a population.

Key Knowledge / Concepts

• Individual members of a population interact with each other. These interactions include competing with each other for basic resources, mates, and territory and cooperating with each other to meet basic needs.

• The establishment of a social order in a population may insure that labor and resources are adequately shared.
• The establishment of a territory ensures that members of a population have adequate habitat to provide for basic resources.

• Individual behaviors and group behaviors can influence a population.

Skills

• differentiate between the needs of the individual and the needs of a population.

 
• determine the relationship between a population’s position in a food web and the types of interactions seen among the individuals of the population.

Standard LS.9
Community Interactions
VDOE - Revised 2003 Standards

Standard LS.9
The student will investigate and understand interactions among populations in a biological community. Key concepts include
a) the relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in food webs;
b) the relationship between predators and prey;
c) competition and cooperation;
d) symbiotic relationships; and
e) niches.

Overview / Key Concepts

• In a community, populations interact with other populations by exhibiting a variety of behaviors that aid in the survival of the population.

• Organisms or populations that rely on each other for basic needs form interdependent communities.

• Energy resources of a community are shared through the interactions of producers, consumers, and decomposers.

• The interaction between a consumer that hunts for another consumer for food is the predator-prey relationship.

• Populations of one species may compete with populations of other species for resources.
• Populations of one species may also cooperate with populations of other species for resources.

• A symbiotic relationship may exist between two or more organisms of different species when they live and work together.

• Symbiotic relationships include mutualism (in which both organisms benefit), commensalism (in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected), and parasitism (in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed).

• Each organism fills a specific role or niche in its community.

Knowledge & Skills

• identify the populations of producers, consumers, and decomposers and describe the roles they play in their communities.

• predict the effect of population changes on the food web of a community.

• generate predictions based on graphically represented data of predator-prey populations.
• generate predictions based on graphically represented data of competition and cooperation between populations.

• differentiate between the types of symbiosis and explain examples of each.

• infer the niche of organisms from their physical characteristics.