FLASHCARD DIRECTIONS: Print the pages. Fold each page down the vertical center and glue the columns back to back. Then cut out the cards.

Question

Answer

Anything that has mass and takes up space.

 

Matter

 

Matter can be classified as:

 

Elements, compounds, mixtures

 

Two or more elements chemically combined in a fixed ratio

 

A compound

 

Atoms of any ______ are alike but are different from the atoms of any other ____ .

 

Element

   

Two or more substances, but the substances are not chemically combined

A mixture

An important group of compounds that contain hydrogen

 

Acids

 

When acids dissolve in water, ____________ are released into the resulting solution.

 

Hydrogen ions (H+)

A substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH-) into solution.

 

A base

A measure of the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution

 

pH

   

pH scale ranges from:

0-14

Solutions with a pH lower than 7 are:

 

Acidic

 

Solutions with a pH greater than 7 are:

 

Basic

 

A pH of 7 is:

 

Neutral

 

This is formed along with water when an acid reacts with a base?

A salt

   

Name seven physical properties of matter.

Shape, density, solubility, odor, melting point, boiling point, color

Which physical properties are characteristic of a substance and do not depend on the size of the sample?

Density, solubility and boiling point

Name 4 chemical properties of a substance.

Acidity, basicity combustibility, and reactivity

All organic compounds contain this.

Carbon

Building blocks of matter

Atoms

   

Model of the structure of the atom that does not depict the three dimensional aspect of an atom and implies that electrons are in static orbits.

The Bohr model.

Model that represents our current understanding of the structure of the atom.

The electron cloud

The number of elements

More than 110

No element with an atomic number greater than this is found in measurable quantities on Earth.

92

Elements with atomic numbers over 92 are:

artificially produced in a laboratory setting.

   

Elements combine in many ways to produce ____ that make up all substances on Earth.

compounds

A tool used to organize information about the elements

The periodic table

The basis for the arrangement of atoms on the Periodic Table is:

the number of protons in its nucleus (the atomic number)

The information on the periodic table can be used to predict:

chemical reactivity

 

The boxes for all of the elements are arranged in increasing order of:

atomic number

   

The elements have increasing _________ character as you read from left to right across the table

Nonmetallic

   

These are along the stair-step line.

Metalloids

The metalloids have properties of both:

Metals and nonmetals

These are located to the right of the stair step line.

non-metals

 

These tend to lose electrons in chemical reactions.

Metals

In chemical reactions, metals tend to these.

positive ions

These tend to gain electrons in chemical reactions, forming negative ions.

non-metals

Gaining or losing electrons makes an atom this.

an ion

Gaining or losing neutrons makes an atom this.

an isotope

   

Gaining or losing a proton makes an atom into this.

a completely different element

The number of outer energy level electrons.

Valence

This determines an element's chemical properties or chemical reactivity.

The number of electrons in the outermost energy level.

The vertical columns in the table

Groups or families

Elements in each group have similar properties because they have this.

The same number of electrons in the outermost energy level.

The horizontal rows on the Periodic Table

Periods

Atoms react to form chemically stable substances that are held together by these.

Chemical bonds

To become chemically stable, atoms do one of these.

Gain, lose or share electrons.

   

When two elements react chemically, these are formed.

Binary compounds

When a metallic element reacts with a nonmetallic element, their atoms gain and lose electrons respectively, forming these.

Ionic bonds

Generally, when two nonmetals react, atoms share electrons, forming these.

Covalent bonds

Matter can undergo ________ and ________ changes.

physical and chemical

In ____ changes, the chemical composition of the substances does not change.

physical

In _______ changes, different substances are formed.

chemical

This law states that regardless of how substances within a closed system are changed, the total mass remains the same.

The Law of Conservation of Matter

Which law states that energy cannot be created or destroyed only changed from one form to another?

 

The Law of Conservation of Energy

 

Changes that take place in a chemical reaction can be represented by a:

 

Chemical equation

 

The chemical formulas of the _____ are written on the left.

 

Reactants

 

In a chemical equation, an arrow indicates:

 

A change to a new substance

 

Chemical formulas of the ______ are written on the right.

 

Products

 

Two broad types of chemical reactions are:

 

Exothermic and endothermic

 

A chemical reaction in which energy is released is:

exothermic

A chemical reaction in which energy is absorbed is:

endothermic

Nuclear energy is energy stored in the

nucleus of the atom

A _____ reaction releases energy by joining the atoms' nuclei together.

 

fusion

 

A _____ reaction releases energy by splitting the nuclei of atoms.

fission

Nuclear reactions can produce large amounts of energy using:

a small amount of matter

What are the negative affects of using nuclear energy?

 

problems with nuclear waste storage and disposal

 

The ability to do work is the definition of:

energy

Energy exists in these two states:

 

potential energy and kinetic energy

 

Potential energy is energy stored because of:

 

position or chemical composition

Kinetic energy is:

energy of motion

The amount of kinetic energy associated with an object depends on:

the mass and velocity of the moving object.

 

Important forms of energy include:

 

light, heat, chemical, electrical, mechanical, and nuclear energy.

 

Sound is a form of:

 

mechanical energy

 

Energy can be ________ from one type to another.

 

 

transformed

In any energy conversion, some of the energy is lost in the environment as:

heat

Atoms and molecules are:

 

 

always in motion (except at Kelvin 0)

 

Most substances_______ when heated.

 

expand

 

The only situation where theoretically there is no atomic/molecular motion is:

absolute zero (-273C or 0K)

 

Are heat and temperature the same thing?

 

no

 

As heat energy is added to or taken away from a system, does the temperature always change?

 

no

 

During a phase change (freezing, melting condensing, boiling, and vaporizing), what happens to the water temperature?

 

there is no change in temperature while the phase change is occurring

 

Why is there no temperature change during a phase change?

 

Energy is being used to make or break bonds between molecules.

 

Describe a graph of a phase change.

 

It shows line of temp. going steadily up, and then leveling off for each phase change.

What produces sound?

 

vibrations

 

What form of energy is sound?

 

mechanical energy

 

Sound travels in ______ waves.

 

compression

Sound needs a ____ in which to travel.

 

a medium (solid, liquid, or gas)

 

What are some of the characteristics of all waves?

 

wavelength, frequency, and amplitude.

 

A ________ wave consists of a repeating pattern of compressions and rarefactions. 

 

longitudinal

 

A _____ is measured as the distance from one compression to the next or the distance from one rarefaction to the next rarefaction.

 

wavelength

Sound travels _____ than light.

 

much slower

 

In a compression wave, matter vibrates in the _____ direction in which the wave travels.

 

same

 

As wavelength increases, frequency ______.

 

decreases

 

On what two things does the speed of sound depend:

 

the medium through which the waves travel and the temperature of the medium

 

Reflection and interference patterns are used in ultrasonic technology, including sonar and medical diagnosis.  True or false

 

true

In a compression wave, label and describe:
wavelength, compression, rarefaction and frequency

Light travels in _____ until it strikes an object.

 

straight lines

 

What happens to light when it strikes an object?

It can be reflected, absorbed, or transmitted

As light waves travel through different media, what happens to them? They change speed

When light waves travel through different media, the change of speed may result in:

 

refraction

 

Light is a form of _____ energy.

 

radiant

 

Light moves in _____ waves.

 

transverse

 

A transverse wave moves at _____  to the direction the energy travels.

right angles

There is an ____ proportion between frequency and wavelength.

 

inverse

 

Electromagnetic waves are arranged on the electromagnetic spectrum by _____ .

 

wavelength

 

All types of electromagnetic radiation travel at the speed of:

 

light.

 

All types of electromagnetic radiation travel at the speed of light, but differ in:

wavelength

The electromagnetic spectrum includes:

 

gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, radio and microwaves

The lowest energy waves are:

 

radio waves

 

Radio waves have the _____ wavelength and ___ frequency.

 

longest; lowest

 

The highest energy waves are:

 

gamma waves

 

Gamma waves have the _______ wavelength and the ___ frequency.

shortest; highest

 

Visible light lies ______ of the electromagnetic spectrum and makes up_________ of the electromagnetic spectrum.


in the middle; only a small portion
Compare a longitudinal wave and a transverse wave.
Show the frequency of a light wave

Show the wavelength and amplitude of a light wave

Describe examples of refraction. A spoon in a cup of water looks bent or broken because the speed of light changes in different media.

Refraction causes a rainbow effect as white light passes through a prism.

What is a force?

 

A push or pull

 

What unit is used to measure force?

 

newtons

 

What can a force cause an object to do?

Move, stop moving, change speed, or change direction

The change in position of an object per unit of time is:

speed

What can have a positive or a negative value depending on the direction of the change in position?

 

velocity

 

What always has a positive value and is non-directional.

 

speed

 

The motion of all objects is described by:

 

Newton's three laws of motion

 

The change in velocity per unit of time:

 

acceleration

 

An object moving with constant velocity has:

no acceleration

A decrease in velocity is:

negative acceleration or deceleration

A distance-time graph for acceleration is always:

 

a curve

 

Objects moving with circular motion are constantly:

accelerating

Why are objects moving with circular motion constantly accelerating?

Because direction, and hence velocity, is constantly changing.

Are mass and weight equivalent?

NO
What is weight? Weight is a measure of the force due to gravity acting on a mass

______ is done when an object is moved through a distance in the direction of the applied force.

Work

A device that makes work easier is a:

Simple machine

What are the different purposes of simple machines?

To change the effort needed (mechanical advantage; to change the direction or distance to which the force is applied; to change the speed at which the resistance moves; or a combination of these.

 

The work put into a machine is always greater than the work output due to:

 

friction

 

The ratio of workout put to work input is called:

 

efficiency

 

Formula for speed speed+distance/time (s=d/t
Force

Force=mass x acceleration (F=ma)

Formula for Work Work = force x distance (W=Fd)
Formula for Power

Power = work/time ((P=Wt)

 

What is Newton's First Law of Motion? An object in motion tends to stay in motion, and an object at rest tends to stay at rest, unless the object is acted upon by an outside force.
What is Newton's Second Law of Motion Accerleration=Force/Mass
Force= Mass X Acceleration

A=F/M or F=MA.

What is Newton's Third Law of Motion? Every action has an equal and opposite reaction.

A property of matter that affects the flow of electricity is _____.

resistance.

Some substances have more ____ than others.

resistance

 

____ can cause electrons to be transferred from one object to another.