Continents are large land masses surrounded by water.
What are the seven continents?

• North America
• South America
• Africa
• Asia
• Australia
• Antarctica
• Europe*

*Europe is considered a continent even though it is not entirely surrounded by water. The land mass is frequently called Eurasia.

STANDARD US1.2b Regions of North America

Where are the geographic regions of North America located?
What are some physical characteristics of the geographic regions of North America?

Geographic regions—locations and physical characteristics
Coastal Plain
• Located along the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico
• Broad lowland providing many excellent harbors

Appalachian Mountains
• Located west of Coastal Plain extending from eastern Canada to western Alabama
• Old, eroded mountains (oldest mountain range in North America)

Canadian Shield
• Wrapped around Hudson Bay in a horseshoe shape
• Hills worn by erosion and hundreds of lakes carved by glaciers
• Holds some of the oldest rock formations in North America

Interior Lowlands
• Located west of the Appalachian Mountains and east of the Great Plains. Rolling flatlands with many rivers, broad river valleys, and grassy hills

Great Plains
• Located west of Interior Lowlands and east of the Rocky Mountains
• Flat land that gradually increases in elevation westward; grasslands

Rocky Mountains
• Located west of the Great Plains and east of the Basin and Range
• Rugged mountains stretching from Alaska to Mexico; high elevations
• Contains the Continental Divide, which determines the directional flow of rivers

Basin and Range
• Located west of Rocky Mountains and east of the Sierra Nevadas and the Cascades
• Area of varying elevations containing isolated mountain ranges and Death Valley, the lowest point in North America

Coastal Range
• Rugged mountains along the Pacific Coast that stretch from California to Canada; Contains fertile valleys

STANDARD US1.2c Rivers

The United States has access to numerous and varied bodies of water.
Bodies of water support interaction among regions, form borders, and create links to other areas.

What are the major bodies of water in the United States?

What are some ways bodies of water in the United States have supported interaction and created links to other regions?
• Trade, transportation, and settlement
• The location of the United States, with its Atlantic and Pacific coasts, has provided access to other areas of the world.

Major bodies of water
• Oceans: Atlantic, Pacific
• Rivers: Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Columbia, Colorado, Rio Grande
• Lakes: Great Lakes
• Gulf: Gulf of Mexico

• The Atlantic Ocean served as the highway for explorers, early settlers, and later immigrants.
• The Ohio River was the gateway to the west.
• Inland port cities grew in the Midwest along the Great Lakes.
• The Mississippi and Missouri Rivers were the transportation arteries for farm and industrial products. They were links to ports and other parts of the world.
• The Columbia River was explored by Lewis and Clark.
• The Colorado River was explored by the Spanish.
• The Rio Grande forms the border with Mexico.
• The Pacific Ocean was an early exploration route.
• The Gulf of Mexico provided the French and Spanish with exploration routes to Mexico and other parts of America.

STANDARD US1.3a,b   American Indians

 In which areas did the American Indians (First Americans) live?

Prior to the arrival of Europeans, American Indians (First Americans) were dispersed across different environments in North America.  

Inuit inhabited present-day Alaska and northern Canada. They lived in Arctic areas where the temperature is below freezing much of the year.

Kwakiutl inhabited the Pacific Northwest coast, characterized by a rainy, mild climate.

Sioux inhabited the interior of the United States, called the Great Plains and characterized by dry grasslands.

Pueblo inhabited the Southwest in present-day New Mexico and Arizona, where they lived in desert areas and areas bordering cliffs and mountains.

Iroquois inhabited northeast North America, the Eastern Woodland, which is heavily forested.

How did geography and climate affect the way American Indian (First American) groups met their basic needs?

The American Indians (First Americans) fished, hunted, and harvested crops for food. Clothing was made from animal skins and plants. Their shelter was made of resources found in their environment (e.g., sod, stones, animal skins, wood).

STANDARD US1.4a   Exploration

Major European countries were in competition to extend their power into North America and claim the land as their own.

Why did European countries compete for power in North America?
Motivating forces for exploration
• Economic—Gold, natural resources, and trade
• Religious—Spread of Christianity
• Competitions for empire and belief in superiority of own culture

What were the obstacles faced by the explorers?
Obstacles to exploration
• Poor maps and navigational tools
• Disease/starvation
• Fear of unknown
• Lack of adequate supplies

What were the accomplishments of the explorations?
Accomplishments of exploration
• Exchanged goods and ideas
• Improved navigational tools and ships
• Claimed territories (see individual countries below)

What regions of North America were explored and settled by France, England, and Spain?
Regions of North America explored by Spain, France, and England
• Spain
– Francisco Coronado claimed southwest United States for Spain.
• France
– Samuel de Champlain established the French settlement of Quebec.
– Robert La Salle claimed the Mississippi River Valley.
• England
– John Cabot explored eastern Canada.

What regions were explored by Portugal?
Regions explored by Portugal
• The Portuguese made voyages of discovery along West Africa.

STANDARD US1.4b,c   Interactions with American Indians
Ghana, Mali and Songhai

How did the American Indians (First Americans) and Europeans interact with each other?
Cultural interaction

• Spanish
– Conquered and enslaved American Indians (First Americans)
– Brought Christianity to the New World
– Brought European diseases

• French
– Established trading posts
– Spread Christian religion

• English
– Established settlements and claimed ownership of land
– Learned farming techniques from American Indians (First Americans)
– Traded
The interactions between American Indians (First Americans) and Europeans sometimes led to cooperation and other times resulted in conflict.

Areas of cooperation
• Technologies (transportation of weapons and farm tools)
• Trade
• Crops

Areas of conflict
• Land
• Competition for trade
• Differences in cultures
• Disease
• Language difference

Ghana, Mali, and Songhai

What was the importance of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai?
How did West African empires impact European trade?

• Each dominated West Africa in turn from 300 to l600 A.D.

• African people and African goods played an important role in arousing European interest in world resources.

• Ghana, Mali, and Songhai became powerful by controlling trade in West Africa.

• The Portuguese carried goods from Europe to West African empires, trading metals, cloth, and other manufactured goods for gold.


STANDARD US1.5a  Events Leading to Colonization

Why did Europeans establish colonies in North America?
Colonies in North America were established for religious and economic reasons.

Colonies and the reasons they were established
• Roanoke Island (Lost Colony) was established as an economic venture. The first permanent English settlement in North America (1607), Jamestown Settlement, was an economic venture by the Virginia Company.

• Plymouth colony was settled by separatists from the Church of England who wanted to avoid religious persecution. Massachusetts Bay Colony was settled by the Puritans for the same reasons.

• Pennsylvania was settled by the
Quakers, who wanted to have freedom to practice their faith without interference.

• Georgia was settled by people who had been in debtor’s prisons in England. They hoped to experience a new life in the colony and to experience economic freedom in the New World.

STANDARD US1.5b,c,d   Life in the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern colonies

*How did climate and geographic features distinguish the three regions from each other?
*How did people use the natural resources of their region to earn a living?
*How did political and social life evolve in each of the three regions?

New England Mid-Atlantic South
• Geography and climate
– Appalachian Mountains, Boston harbor, hilly terrain, rocky soil, jagged coastline
– Moderate summers, cold winters
• Geography and climate
– Appalachian Mountains, coastal lowlands (harbors and bays, wide and deep rivers), rich farmlands
– Moderate climate
• Geography and climate
– Appalachian Mountains, Piedmont, Atlantic Coastal Plain, good harbors, rivers
– Humid climate
• Economy
– Fishing, shipbuilding industry and naval supplies, trade and port cities
– Skilled craftsmen, shopkeepers
• Economy
– Livestock and grain, trading
– Unskilled and skilled workers and fishermen
• Economy
– Large farms/plantations, cash crops, wood products, small farms
– Slavery
• Social life
– Village and church as center of life
– Religious reformers and separatists
• Social life
– Villages and cities
– Varied and diverse lifestyles
– Diverse religions
• Social life
– Plantations (slavery), mansions, indentured servants, few cities, few schools
– Church of England
• Political and civic life
– Town meetings
• Political and civic life
– Market towns
• Political and civic life
– Counties
How did people’s lives vary among different social groups in colonial America?

The colonies were made up of different groups of people whose lives varied depending on their social position.
Large landowners
• Lived predominately in the South
• Relied on indentured servants and/or slaves for labor
• Were educated in some cases
• Had rich social culture
• Worked the land according to the region
• Relied on family members for labor
• Worked as craftsmen in towns and on the plantation
• Lived in small villages and cities
• Worked as caretakers, house-workers, homemakers
• Could not vote
• Had few chances for an education
Indentured servants
• Consisted of men and women who did not have money for passage to the colonies and who agreed to work without pay for the person who paid for their passage
• Were free at the end of their contract
• Were captured in their native Africa and sold to slave traders, then were shipped to the colonies where they were sold into slavery
• Were owned as property for life with no rights
• Were often born into slavery (Children of slaves were born into slavery.)

How did England impose its political and economic control over the colonies?

England established and attempted to maintain control over the colonies.

Economic relationships
• England imposed strict control over trade.
• England taxed the colonies after the French and Indian War.
• Colonies traded raw materials for goods.

Political relationships
• Colonists had to obey English laws that were enforced by governors.
• Colonial governors were appointed by the king or by the proprietor.
• Colonial legislatures made laws for each colony and were monitored by colonial governors.

STANDARD US1.6a Dissatisfaction leads to Revolution

What steps did England take to increase control over its colonies?

Why did many colonists become dissatisfied with England’s control over the colonies?

As England expanded control over the American colonies, many colonists became dissatisfied and rebellious.

England’s reasons for control
• England desired to remain a world power.
• England imposed taxes, such as the Stamp Act, to raise necessary revenue to pay the cost of the French and Indian War.

England’s reasons for taxation
• To help finance the French and Indian War
• To help with the maintaining of English troops in the colonies

Sources of colonial dissatisfaction
• Colonies had no representation in Parliament.
• Some colonists resented power of colonial governors.
• England wanted strict control over colonial legislatures.
• Colonies opposed taxes.
• The Proclamation of l763 hampered the western movement of settlers.

STANDARD US1.6b Dissatisfaction Leads to Revolution

What ideas/philosophies about government were expressed in the Declaration of Independence?

New political ideas led to a desire for independence and democratic government in the American colonies.

The Declaration of Independence proclaimed independence from England. It stated that people have natural (inherent) rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

Ideas of John Locke
• People have natural rights to life, liberty, and property.
• Government is created to protect the rights of people and has only the limited and specific powers the people consent to give it.

Key philosophies in the Declaration of Independence
• People have “certain unalienable rights” (rights that cannot be taken away)—life, liberty, pursuit of happiness.
• People establish government to protect those rights.
• Government derives power from the people.
• People have a right and a duty to change a government that violates their rights.

STANDARD US1.6c    Key People and Events in the Revolutionary War

Who were some of the key individuals in the Revolutionary War? What role did key individuals play in the Revolutionary War?

What were some of the key events that occurred during the Revolutionary War period?

Key individuals
• King George III:
British king during the Revolutionary era
• Lord Cornwallis:
British general who surrendered at Yorktown
• John Adams:
Championed the cause of independence
• George Washington:
Commander of the Continental Army
• Thomas Jefferson:
Major author of the Declaration of Independence
• Patrick Henry:
Outspoken member of House of Burgesses; inspired colonial patriotism with “Give me liberty or give me death” speech
• Benjamin Franklin:
Prominent member of Continental Congress; helped frame the Declaration of Independence
• Thomas Paine:
Journalist, author of Common Sense

Other important individuals
• Phyllis Wheatley:
A former slave who wrote poems and plays supporting American independence
• Paul Revere:
Patriot who made a daring ride to warn colonists of British arrival; cried “The British are coming!”

Key Events
• Boston Massacre:
Colonists in Boston were shot after taunting British soldiers.
• Boston Tea Party:
Samuel Adams and Paul Revere led patriots in throwing tea into Boston Harbor to protest tea taxes.
• First Continental Congress:
Delegates from all colonies met to discuss problems with England and to promote independence.
• Battle of Lexington and Concord:
This was the site of the first armed conflict of the Revolutionary War.
• Approval of the Declaration of Independence:
Colonies declared independence from England (July 4, 1776).
• Battle of Saratoga:
This American victory was the turning point in the war.
• Surrender at Yorktown:
This was the colonial victory over forces of Lord Cornwallis that marked the end of the Revolutionary War.
• Signing of the Treaty of Paris:
England recognized American independence in this treaty.

STANDARD US1.7a    Weak Government Under Articles of Confederation

What were the basic weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?

The Articles of Confederation was a constitution written during the American Revolution to establish the powers of the new national government

Articles of Confederation
• Provided for a weak national government
• Gave Congress no power to tax or regulate commerce among the states
• Provided for no common currency
• Gave each state one vote regardless of size
• Provided for no executive or judicial branch

STANDARD US1.7b Basic Principles of our New Gov't Established by Constitution

What were the basic principles of governments stated in the Constitution of the United States of America and Bill of Rights?

The Constitution of the United States of America established a federal system of government based on power shared between the national and state governments.

The Bill of Rights provided a written guarantee of individual rights.

Terms to know
Federal system of government: A system that divides governmental powers between national government and the governments of the states

Basic principles of government
Separation of powers
• The structure of the new national government was based on James Madison’s “Virginia Plan,” which called for three separate branches of government:
– Legislative Branch (Congress) makes the laws. Congress is a two-house legislature in which all states are represented equally in the Senate (two Senators per state) and people are represented in the House of Representatives (number of a state’s representatives is based on state’s population).
– Judicial Branch (Supreme Court) determines if laws made by Congress are constitutional.
– Executive Branch (President) carries out the laws.
Checks and balances
• Each branch can check the power of the other.
• These checks keep any one branch from gaining too much power.

Bill of Rights
• James Madison was the author of the Bill of Rights.
• The first ten amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America provide a written guarantee of individual rights (e.g., freedom of speech, freedom of religion).

STANDARD US1.7c Political Parties Emerge

What were the major differences between Hamilton and Jefferson?

Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson had opposing views on the role of the national government. That opposition resulted in the creation of two political parties.
The debate over the role of the national government has continued throughout United States history.

Major party differences
• Alexander Hamilton
– Leader of Federalists
– Favored strong national government
– Favored limits on states’ powers
– Favored development of industry on a national scale
– Favored a national bank

• Thomas Jefferson
– Leader of the Democratic Republicans
– Favored a weak national government
– Supported states’ powers
– Favored small business and farmers
– Opposed a national bank

STANDARD US1.7d  Accomplishments of the First Five Presidents

What were the major national issues and events faced by the first five presidents?

Congress and the first five presidents made decisions establishing a strong government that helped the nation grow in size and power.

All of the first five presidents were Virginians except John Adams.

Accomplishments during first five presidencies
George Washington
• Federal court system was established.
• Political parties grew out of the disagreements between Hamilton and Jefferson over the proper role of the national government.
• The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution of the United States of America.
• Plans were initiated for development of the national capital in Washington, D.C. Benjamin Banneker, an African American astronomer and surveyor, helped complete the design for the city.

John Adams
• A two-party system emerged during his administration.

Thomas Jefferson
• He bought Louisiana from France (Louisiana Purchase).
• Lewis and Clark explored this new land west of the Mississippi River.

James Madison
• The War of l812 caused European nations to gain respect for the United States.

James Monroe
• He wrote the Monroe Doctrine warning European nations not to interfere in the Western Hemisphere.

STANDARD US1.8a    Westward Expansion

What new territories became part of the United States between 1801 and 1861?

Between 1801 and 1861, exploration was encouraged as America underwent vast territorial expansion and settlement.

New territories added to the United States after 1801

Louisiana Purchase
• Jefferson bought land from France (the Louisiana Purchase), which doubled the size of the United States.
• In the Lewis and Clark expedition, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark explored the Louisiana Purchase from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean.
• Spain gave Florida to the United States through a treaty.
• Texas was added after it became an independent republic.
• The Oregon Territory was divided by the United States and Great Britain.
• War with Mexico resulted in California and the southwest territory becoming part of the United States.

STANDARD US1.8b Westward Expansion - Geographic and Economic Factors

What factors influenced westward migration?
Westward migration was influenced by geography and economic opportunity

Geographic and economic factors that influenced westward movement
• Population growth in the eastern states
• Availability of cheap, fertile land
• Economic opportunity, e.g., gold (California Gold Rush), logging, farming, freedom (for runaway slaves)
• Cheaper and faster transportation, e.g., rivers and canals (Erie Canal), steamboats
• Knowledge of overland trails (Oregon and Santa Fe)
• Belief in the right of “Manifest Destiny”—The idea that expansion was for the good of the country and was the right of the country

STANDARD US1.8c  Impact of Inventions

How did the inventions affect the lives of Americans?
Prior to the Civil War, most industrialization in America was in the North; however, the equipment produced in the North had an impact on the farming society in the South.

New technologies
• The
cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitney. It increased the production of cotton and thus increased the need for slave labor to cultivate and pick the cotton.
• Jo Anderson (a slave) and Cyrus McCormick worked to invent
the reaper. The reaper increased the productivity of the American farmer.
• The
steamboat was invented by Robert Fulton. It provided faster river transportation that connected Southern plantations and farms to Northern industries.
• The
steam locomotive provided faster land transportation.

STANDARD US1.8d Abolitionist and Suffrage Movements

What were the main ideas expressed by the abolitionists?
The abolitionists worked to end slavery.
What were the main ideas expressed during the suffrage movement?
The suffrage movement helped women gain equal rights.

Abolitionist movement
• Most abolitionists demanded immediate freeing of the slaves.
• Abolitionists believed that slavery was wrong.
– Morally wrong
– Cruel and inhumane
– A violation of the principles of democracy

• Abolitionist leaders included both men and women.
– Harriet Tubman
– William Lloyd Garrison
– Frederick Douglass

Suffrage movement
• Supporters declared that “All men and women are created equal.”
• Supporters believed that women were deprived of basic rights.
– Denied the right to vote
– Denied educational opportunities, especially higher education
– Denied equal opportunities in business
– Limited in rights to own property

• The movement was led by strong women who began their campaign before the Civil War and continued after the war had ended.
– Isabel Sojourner Truth
– Susan B. Anthony
– Elizabeth Cady Stanton

STANDARD US1.9a    Issues Dividing the Nation

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the causes, major events, and effects of the Civil War by
a) describing the cultural, economic, and constitutional issues that divided the nation.
How did cultural, economical, and constitutional issues create bitter divisions between the North and the South?
Cultural, economic, and constitutional differences between the North and the South eventually resulted in the Civil War.

Issues that divided the nation

• While there were several differences between the North and the South, the issues related to slavery increasingly divided the nation and led to the Civil War.

• The North was mainly an urban society in which people held jobs.
• The South was primarily an agricultural society in which people lived in small villages and on farms and plantations.
• Because of their cultural differences, people of the North and South found it difficult to agree on social and political issues.

• The North was a manufacturing region, and its people favored tariffs that protected factory owners and workers from foreign competition.
• Southerners opposed tariffs that would cause prices of manufactured goods to increase. Planters were also concerned that England might stop buying cotton from the South if tariffs were added.

• A major conflict was states’ rights versus strong central government.

STANDARD US1.9b States' Rights and Slavery

The student will demonstrate knowledge of the causes, major events, and effects of the Civil War by
b) explaining how the issues of states’ rights and slavery increased sectional tensions.
How did the issues of states’ rights and slavery increase sectional tension between the North and South?

The South feared that the North would take control of Congress, and Southerners began to proclaim states’ rights as a means of self-protection.

The North believed that the nation was a union and could not be divided. While the Civil War did not begin as a war to abolish slavery, issues surrounding slavery deeply divided the nation.

Issues that divided the nation
• An important issue separating the country related to the power of the Federal government. Southerners believed that they had the power to declare any national law illegal. Northerners believed that the national government’s power was supreme over that of the states.
• Southerners felt that the abolition of slavery would destroy their region’s economy. Northerners believed that slavery should be abolished for moral reasons.

Compromises attempting to resolve differences
• Missouri Compromise (1820): Missouri was a slave state; Maine, a free state.
• Compromise of l850: California was a free state. Southwest territories would decide about slavery.
• Kansas-Nebraska Act: People decided the slavery issue (“popular sovereignty”).
Southern secession
Following Lincoln’s election, the southern states seceded from the Union. Confederate forces attacked Fort Sumter, in South Carolina, marking the beginning of the Civil War.

Lincoln and many Northerners believed that the United States was one nation that could not be separated or divided. Most Southerners believed that states had freely created and joined the union and could freely leave it.

STANDARD US1.9c South Secedes

Southern states that were dependent upon labor-intensive cash crops seceded from the Union. Northernmost slave states (border states) stayed in the Union.

Which states seceded from the Union?
States that seceded from the Union
• Alabama
• Arkansas
• Florida
• Georgia
• Louisiana
• Mississippi
• North Carolina
• South Carolina
• Tennessee
• Texas
• Virginia

Which four slave states stayed in the Union?
States remaining in the Union
• Border states (slave states)
– Delaware
– Kentucky
– Maryland
– Missouri

Where were the other states that remained in the Union located?
• Free States
– California
– Connecticut
– Illinois
– Indiana
– Iowa
– Kansas
– Maine
– Massachusetts
– Michigan
– Minnesota
– New Hampshire
– New Jersey
– New York
– Ohio
– Oregon
– Pennsylvania
– Rhode Island
– Vermont
– West Virginia (Western counties of Virginia that refused to secede from the Union)
– Wisconsin

STANDARD US1.9d   Civil War Leaders

Who are considered leaders of the Civil War?

How did Lincoln’s view of the nature of the Union differ from Lee’s?

Roles of Civil War leaders

• Abraham Lincoln
– Was President of the United States
– Opposed the spread of slavery
– Issued the Emancipation Proclamation
– Determined to preserve the Union—by force if necessary
– Believed the United States was one nation, not a collection of independent states
– Wrote the Gettysburg Address that said the Civil War was to preserve a government “of the people, by the people, and for the people.”

• Jefferson Davis
– Was president of the Confederate States of America

• Ulysses S. Grant
– Was general of the Union army that defeated Lee

• Robert E. Lee
– Was leader of the Army of Northern Virginia
– Was offered command of the Union forces at the beginning of the war but chose not to fight against Virginia
– Opposed secession, but did not believe the union should be held together by force
– Urged Southerners to accept defeat at the end of the war and reunite as Americans when some wanted to fight on

• Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson
– Was a skilled Confederate general from Virginia

• Frederick Douglass
– Was a former slave who escaped to the North and became an abolitionist

STANDARD US1.10a The 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments

What are the basic provisions of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments?

The 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments address the issues of slavery and guarantee equal protection under the law for all citizens.

Basic provisions of the Amendments
• 13th Amendment: Bans slavery in the United States and any of its territories
• 14th Amendment: Grants citizenship to all persons born in the United States and guarantees them equal protection under the law
• 15th Amendment: Ensures all citizens the right to vote regardless of race or color or previous condition of servitude

These three amendments guarantee equal protection under the law for all citizens.

STANDARD US1.10b    Effects of Reconstruction on the South

What were the Reconstruction policies for the South?

The Reconstruction policies were harsh and created problems in the South.

Reconstruction attempted to give meaning to the freedom that the former slaves had achieved.

Reconstruction policies and problems

• Southern military leaders could not hold office.
• Southerners resented northern “carpetbaggers,” who took advantage of the South during Reconstruction.
• African Americans held public office.
• African Americans gained equal rights as a result of the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which authorized the use of federal troops for its enforcement.
• Northern soldiers supervised the South.