|Continents are large land masses surrounded by water.
What are the seven continents?
STANDARD US1.2b Regions of North America
|Where are the geographic regions of North America located?
What are some physical characteristics of the geographic regions of North America?
Geographic regionslocations and physical characteristics
Located along the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico
Broad lowland providing many excellent harbors
STANDARD US1.2c Rivers
|The United States has access to numerous and varied bodies
Bodies of water support interaction among regions, form borders, and create links to other areas.
What are the major bodies of water in the United States?
What are some ways bodies of water in the United States have supported interaction and created links to other regions?
Trade, transportation, and settlement
The location of the United States, with its Atlantic and Pacific coasts, has provided access to other areas of the world.
Major bodies of water
Oceans: Atlantic, Pacific
Rivers: Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Columbia, Colorado, Rio Grande
Lakes: Great Lakes
Gulf: Gulf of Mexico
The Atlantic Ocean served as the highway for explorers, early settlers, and later immigrants.
The Ohio River was the gateway to the west.
Inland port cities grew in the Midwest along the Great Lakes.
The Mississippi and Missouri Rivers were the transportation arteries for farm and industrial products. They were links to ports and other parts of the world.
The Columbia River was explored by Lewis and Clark.
The Colorado River was explored by the Spanish.
The Rio Grande forms the border with Mexico.
The Pacific Ocean was an early exploration route.
The Gulf of Mexico provided the French and Spanish with exploration routes to Mexico and other parts of America.
STANDARD US1.3a,b American Indians
| In which
areas did the American Indians (First Americans) live?
Prior to the arrival of Europeans, American Indians (First Americans) were dispersed across different environments in North America.
Inuit inhabited present-day Alaska and northern Canada. They lived in Arctic areas where the temperature is below freezing much of the year.
Kwakiutl inhabited the Pacific Northwest coast, characterized by a rainy, mild climate.
Sioux inhabited the interior of the United States, called the Great Plains and characterized by dry grasslands.
Pueblo inhabited the Southwest in present-day New Mexico and Arizona, where they lived in desert areas and areas bordering cliffs and mountains.
Iroquois inhabited northeast North America, the Eastern Woodland, which is heavily forested.
How did geography and climate affect the way American Indian (First American) groups met their basic needs?
The American Indians (First Americans) fished, hunted, and harvested crops for food. Clothing was made from animal skins and plants. Their shelter was made of resources found in their environment (e.g., sod, stones, animal skins, wood).
STANDARD US1.4a Exploration
European countries were in competition to extend their power into North
America and claim the land as their own.
Why did European countries compete for power in North America?
Motivating forces for exploration
EconomicGold, natural resources, and trade
ReligiousSpread of Christianity
Competitions for empire and belief in superiority of own culture
What were the obstacles faced by the explorers?
Obstacles to exploration
Poor maps and navigational tools
Fear of unknown
Lack of adequate supplies
What were the accomplishments of the explorations?
Accomplishments of exploration
Exchanged goods and ideas
Improved navigational tools and ships
Claimed territories (see individual countries below)
What regions of North America were explored and settled by France, England, and Spain?
Regions of North America explored by Spain, France, and England
Francisco Coronado claimed southwest United States for Spain.
Samuel de Champlain established the French settlement of Quebec.
Robert La Salle claimed the Mississippi River Valley.
John Cabot explored eastern Canada.
What regions were explored by Portugal?
Regions explored by Portugal
The Portuguese made voyages of discovery along West Africa.
STANDARD US1.4b,c Interactions with American
How did the American Indians (First Americans) and
Europeans interact with each other?
STANDARD US1.5a Events Leading to Colonization
Why did Europeans establish colonies in North America?
Colonies and the reasons they were established
STANDARD US1.5b,c,d Life in the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern colonies
*How did climate and
geographic features distinguish the three regions from
Geography and climate
Appalachian Mountains, Boston harbor, hilly terrain, rocky soil, jagged coastline
Moderate summers, cold winters
Geography and climate
Appalachian Mountains, coastal lowlands (harbors and bays, wide and deep rivers), rich farmlands
Geography and climate
Appalachian Mountains, Piedmont, Atlantic Coastal Plain, good harbors, rivers
Fishing, shipbuilding industry and naval supplies, trade and port cities
Skilled craftsmen, shopkeepers
Livestock and grain, trading
Unskilled and skilled workers and fishermen
Large farms/plantations, cash crops, wood products, small farms
Village and church as center of life
Religious reformers and separatists
Villages and cities
Varied and diverse lifestyles
Plantations (slavery), mansions, indentured servants, few cities, few schools
Church of England
Political and civic life
Political and civic life
Political and civic life
peoples lives vary among different social groups in
The colonies were made up of different groups of people whose lives varied depending on their social position.
Lived predominately in the South
Relied on indentured servants and/or slaves for labor
Were educated in some cases
Had rich social culture
Worked the land according to the region
Relied on family members for labor
Worked as craftsmen in towns and on the plantation
Lived in small villages and cities
Worked as caretakers, house-workers, homemakers
Could not vote
Had few chances for an education
Consisted of men and women who did not have money for passage to the colonies and who agreed to work without pay for the person who paid for their passage
Were free at the end of their contract
Were captured in their native Africa and sold to slave traders, then were shipped to the colonies where they were sold into slavery
Were owned as property for life with no rights
Were often born into slavery (Children of slaves were born into slavery.)
How did England impose its
political and economic control over the colonies?
STANDARD US1.6a Dissatisfaction leads to Revolution
|What steps did
England take to increase control over its colonies?
Why did many colonists become dissatisfied with Englands control over the colonies?
As England expanded control over the American colonies, many colonists became dissatisfied and rebellious.
Englands reasons for control
England desired to remain a world power.
England imposed taxes, such as the Stamp Act, to raise necessary revenue to pay the cost of the French and Indian War.
Englands reasons for taxation
To help finance the French and Indian War
To help with the maintaining of English troops in the colonies
Sources of colonial dissatisfaction
Colonies had no representation in Parliament.
Some colonists resented power of colonial governors.
England wanted strict control over colonial legislatures.
Colonies opposed taxes.
The Proclamation of l763 hampered the western movement of settlers.
STANDARD US1.6b Dissatisfaction Leads to Revolution
ideas/philosophies about government were expressed in
the Declaration of Independence?
New political ideas led to a desire for independence and democratic government in the American colonies.
The Declaration of Independence proclaimed independence from England. It stated that people have natural (inherent) rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
Ideas of John Locke
People have natural rights to life, liberty, and property.
Government is created to protect the rights of people and has only the limited and specific powers the people consent to give it.
Key philosophies in the Declaration of Independence
People have certain unalienable rights (rights that cannot be taken away)life, liberty, pursuit of happiness.
People establish government to protect those rights.
Government derives power from the people.
People have a right and a duty to change a government that violates their rights.
STANDARD US1.6c Key People and Events in the Revolutionary War
|Who were some of the key individuals in
the Revolutionary War? What role did key individuals play in the
What were some of the key events that occurred during the Revolutionary War period?
King George III: British king during the Revolutionary era
Lord Cornwallis: British general who surrendered at Yorktown
John Adams: Championed the cause of independence
George Washington: Commander of the Continental Army
Thomas Jefferson: Major author of the Declaration of Independence
Patrick Henry: Outspoken member of House of Burgesses; inspired colonial patriotism with Give me liberty or give me death speech
Benjamin Franklin: Prominent member of Continental Congress; helped frame the Declaration of Independence
Thomas Paine: Journalist, author of Common Sense
Other important individuals
Phyllis Wheatley: A former slave who wrote poems and plays supporting American independence
Paul Revere: Patriot who made a daring ride to warn colonists of British arrival; cried The British are coming!
Boston Massacre: Colonists in Boston were shot after taunting British soldiers.
Boston Tea Party: Samuel Adams and Paul Revere led patriots in throwing tea into Boston Harbor to protest tea taxes.
First Continental Congress: Delegates from all colonies met to discuss problems with England and to promote independence.
Battle of Lexington and Concord: This was the site of the first armed conflict of the Revolutionary War.
Approval of the Declaration of Independence: Colonies declared independence from England (July 4, 1776).
Battle of Saratoga: This American victory was the turning point in the war.
Surrender at Yorktown: This was the colonial victory over forces of Lord Cornwallis that marked the end of the Revolutionary War.
Signing of the Treaty of Paris: England recognized American independence in this treaty.
STANDARD US1.7a Weak Government Under Articles of Confederation
|What were the basic weaknesses of the
Articles of Confederation?
The Articles of Confederation was a constitution written during the American Revolution to establish the powers of the new national government
Articles of Confederation
STANDARD US1.7b Basic Principles of our New Gov't Established by Constitution
|What were the basic principles of
governments stated in the Constitution of the United States of America and
Bill of Rights?
The Constitution of the United
States of America established a federal system of government based on power
shared between the national and state governments.
Terms to know
STANDARD US1.7c Political Parties Emerge
|What were the major differences between
Hamilton and Jefferson?
Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson had opposing views on the role of the national government. That opposition resulted in the creation of two political parties.
The debate over the role of the national government has continued throughout United States history.
Major party differences
Leader of Federalists
Favored strong national government
Favored limits on states powers
Favored development of industry on a national scale
Favored a national bank
Leader of the Democratic Republicans
Favored a weak national government
Supported states powers
Favored small business and farmers
Opposed a national bank
STANDARD US1.7d Accomplishments of the First Five Presidents
|What were the major national issues and
events faced by the first five presidents?
Congress and the first five presidents made decisions establishing a strong government that helped the nation grow in size and power.
All of the first five presidents were Virginians except John Adams.
Accomplishments during first five presidencies
Federal court system was established.
Political parties grew out of the disagreements between Hamilton and Jefferson over the proper role of the national government.
The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution of the United States of America.
Plans were initiated for development of the national capital in Washington, D.C. Benjamin Banneker, an African American astronomer and surveyor, helped complete the design for the city.
A two-party system emerged during his administration.
He bought Louisiana from France (Louisiana Purchase).
Lewis and Clark explored this new land west of the Mississippi River.
The War of l812 caused European nations to gain respect for the United States.
He wrote the Monroe Doctrine warning European nations not to interfere in the Western Hemisphere.
STANDARD US1.8a Westward Expansion
|What new territories became part of the
United States between 1801 and 1861?
Between 1801 and 1861, exploration was encouraged as America underwent vast territorial expansion and settlement.
New territories added to the United States after 1801
Jefferson bought land from France (the Louisiana Purchase), which doubled the size of the United States.
In the Lewis and Clark expedition, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark explored the Louisiana Purchase from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean.
Spain gave Florida to the United States through a treaty.
Texas was added after it became an independent republic.
The Oregon Territory was divided by the United States and Great Britain.
War with Mexico resulted in California and the southwest territory becoming part of the United States.
STANDARD US1.8b Westward Expansion - Geographic and Economic Factors
|What factors influenced westward
Westward migration was influenced by geography and economic opportunity
Geographic and economic factors that influenced westward movement
Population growth in the eastern states
Availability of cheap, fertile land
Economic opportunity, e.g., gold (California Gold Rush), logging, farming, freedom (for runaway slaves)
Cheaper and faster transportation, e.g., rivers and canals (Erie Canal), steamboats
Knowledge of overland trails (Oregon and Santa Fe)
Belief in the right of Manifest DestinyThe idea that expansion was for the good of the country and was the right of the country
STANDARD US1.8c Impact of Inventions
How did the inventions affect the lives of Americans?
Prior to the Civil War, most industrialization in America was in the North; however, the equipment produced in the North had an impact on the farming society in the South.
The cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitney. It increased the production of cotton and thus increased the need for slave labor to cultivate and pick the cotton.
Jo Anderson (a slave) and Cyrus McCormick worked to invent the reaper. The reaper increased the productivity of the American farmer.
The steamboat was invented by Robert Fulton. It provided faster river transportation that connected Southern plantations and farms to Northern industries.
The steam locomotive provided faster land transportation.
STANDARD US1.8d Abolitionist and Suffrage Movements
|What were the main ideas expressed by the
The abolitionists worked to end slavery.
What were the main ideas expressed during the suffrage movement?
The suffrage movement helped women gain equal rights.
Most abolitionists demanded immediate freeing of the slaves.
Abolitionists believed that slavery was wrong.
Cruel and inhumane
A violation of the principles of democracy
Abolitionist leaders included both men and women.
William Lloyd Garrison
Supporters declared that All men and women are created equal.
Supporters believed that women were deprived of basic rights.
Denied the right to vote
Denied educational opportunities, especially higher education
Denied equal opportunities in business
Limited in rights to own property
The movement was led by strong women who began their campaign before the Civil War and continued after the war had ended.
Isabel Sojourner Truth
Susan B. Anthony
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
STANDARD US1.9a Issues Dividing the Nation
|The student will
demonstrate knowledge of the causes, major events, and effects of the Civil
a) describing the cultural, economic, and constitutional issues that divided the nation.
|How did cultural, economical,
and constitutional issues create bitter divisions between the North and the
Cultural, economic, and constitutional differences between the North and the South eventually resulted in the Civil War.
Issues that divided the nation
While there were several differences between the North and the South, the issues related to slavery increasingly divided the nation and led to the Civil War.
The North was mainly an urban society in which people held jobs.
The South was primarily an agricultural society in which people lived in small villages and on farms and plantations.
Because of their cultural differences, people of the North and South found it difficult to agree on social and political issues.
The North was a manufacturing region, and its people favored tariffs that protected factory owners and workers from foreign competition.
Southerners opposed tariffs that would cause prices of manufactured goods to increase. Planters were also concerned that England might stop buying cotton from the South if tariffs were added.
A major conflict was states rights versus strong central government.
STANDARD US1.9b States' Rights and Slavery
|The student will
demonstrate knowledge of the causes, major events, and effects of the Civil
b) explaining how the issues of states rights and slavery increased sectional tensions.
|How did the issues of states
rights and slavery increase sectional tension between the North and South?
The South feared that the North would take control of Congress, and Southerners began to proclaim states rights as a means of self-protection.
The North believed that the nation was a union and could not be divided. While the Civil War did not begin as a war to abolish slavery, issues surrounding slavery deeply divided the nation.
Issues that divided the nation
An important issue separating the country related to the power of the Federal government. Southerners believed that they had the power to declare any national law illegal. Northerners believed that the national governments power was supreme over that of the states.
Southerners felt that the abolition of slavery would destroy their regions economy. Northerners believed that slavery should be abolished for moral reasons.
Compromises attempting to resolve differences
Missouri Compromise (1820): Missouri was a slave state; Maine, a free state.
Compromise of l850: California was a free state. Southwest territories would decide about slavery.
Kansas-Nebraska Act: People decided the slavery issue (popular sovereignty).
Following Lincolns election, the southern states seceded from the Union. Confederate forces attacked Fort Sumter, in South Carolina, marking the beginning of the Civil War.
Lincoln and many Northerners believed that the United States was one nation that could not be separated or divided. Most Southerners believed that states had freely created and joined the union and could freely leave it.
STANDARD US1.9c South Secedes
|Southern states that were
dependent upon labor-intensive cash crops seceded from the Union.
Northernmost slave states (border states) stayed in the Union.
Which states seceded from the Union?
States that seceded from the Union
|Which four slave states stayed in the
States remaining in the Union
Border states (slave states)
Where were the other states that remained in the Union located?
West Virginia (Western counties of Virginia that refused to secede from the Union)
STANDARD US1.9d Civil War Leaders
|Who are considered leaders of the Civil
How did Lincolns view of the nature of the Union differ from Lees?
Roles of Civil War leaders
Was President of the United States
Opposed the spread of slavery
Issued the Emancipation Proclamation
Determined to preserve the Unionby force if necessary
Believed the United States was one nation, not a collection of independent states
Wrote the Gettysburg Address that said the Civil War was to preserve a government of the people, by the people, and for the people.
Was president of the Confederate States of America
Ulysses S. Grant
Was general of the Union army that defeated Lee
Robert E. Lee
Was leader of the Army of Northern Virginia
Was offered command of the Union forces at the beginning of the war but chose not to fight against Virginia
Opposed secession, but did not believe the union should be held together by force
Urged Southerners to accept defeat at the end of the war and reunite as Americans when some wanted to fight on
Thomas Stonewall Jackson
Was a skilled Confederate general from Virginia
Was a former slave who escaped to the North and became an abolitionist
STANDARD US1.10a The 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments
|What are the basic provisions of the
13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments?
The 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments address the issues of slavery and guarantee equal protection under the law for all citizens.
provisions of the Amendments
STANDARD US1.10b Effects of Reconstruction on the South
|What were the Reconstruction policies for
The Reconstruction policies were harsh and created problems in the South.
Reconstruction attempted to give meaning to the freedom that the former slaves had achieved.
Reconstruction policies and problems
Southern military leaders could not hold office.
Southerners resented northern carpetbaggers, who took advantage of the South during Reconstruction.
African Americans held public office.
African Americans gained equal rights as a result of the Civil Rights Act of 1866, which authorized the use of federal troops for its enforcement.
Northern soldiers supervised the South.