VDOE's Curriculum Framework - illustrated

Standard 4.4 - Plants

The student will investigate and understand basic plant anatomy and life processes. Key concepts include
a) the structures of typical plants (leaves, stems, roots, and flowers);
b) processes and structures involved with reproduction (pollination, stamen, pistil, sepal, embryo, spore, and seed);
c) photosynthesis (sunlight, chlorophyll, water, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and sugar); and
d) dormancy.

The concepts developed in this standard include the following:

For many typical green plants there are anatomical structures that perform certain basic functions.

For example, roots anchor the plants and take water and nutrients from the soil. Plant stems provide support and allow movement of water and nutrients.



 ferns and mosses reproduce with spores rather than seeds

The plant kingdom can be divided into two general groups, those that produce seeds and those that produce spores. Plants that reproduce with spores include ferns and mosses.

Many seed
producing plants
have roots, stems, leaves, and
flowers. The
parts of
the flower.

 The sepals are the
 small leaves that form
the housing of the

Pollination is part
of the reproductive
process for
flowering plants.
is the process by
 which pollen is
transferred from the
stamens to the stigma.

Green plants produce their own food through the process of photosynthesis. Green plants use chlorophyll  to produce food (sugar) using  carbon dioxide, water, nutrients, and sunlight.   Leaves are the primary food producing  part of these plants.   Oxygen is produced  during photosynthesis.

Dormancy is a period of suspended 
life processes brought on by changes
in the environment.

Students should know the parts of a flower and their function(stamen, pistil, sepal, ovary, ovule, seed);  funtion of the roots, stems, leaves, and flowers;  reproductive processes in typical flowering plants; different ways plants are pollinated;  that ferns and mosses reproduce with spores rather than seeds; terminology of photosynthesis - sunlight, chlorophyll, water, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and sugar; the role of dormancy for common plants.