FLASHCARD DIRECTIONS: Print the pages. Fold each page down the vertical center and glue the columns back to back. Then cut out the cards.



Anything that has mass and takes up space.




Matter can be classified as:


Elements, compounds, mixtures


Two or more elements chemically combined in a fixed ratio


A compound


Atoms of any ______ are alike but are different from the atoms of any other ____ .




Two or more substances, but the substances are not chemically combined

A mixture

An important group of compounds that contain hydrogen




When acids dissolve in water, ____________ are released into the resulting solution.


Hydrogen ions (H+)

A substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH-) into solution.


A base

A measure of the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution




pH scale ranges from:


Solutions with a pH lower than 7 are:




Solutions with a pH greater than 7 are:




A pH of 7 is:




This is formed along with water when an acid reacts with a base?

A salt


Name seven physical properties of matter.

Shape, density, solubility, odor, melting point, boiling point, color

Which physical properties are characteristic of a substance and do not depend on the size of the sample?

Density, solubility and boiling point

Name 4 chemical properties of a substance.

Acidity, basicity combustibility, and reactivity

All organic compounds contain this.


Building blocks of matter



Model of the structure of the atom that does not depict the three dimensional aspect of an atom and implies that electrons are in static orbits.

The Bohr model.

Model that represents our current understanding of the structure of the atom.

The electron cloud

The number of elements

More than 110

No element with an atomic number greater than this is found in measurable quantities on Earth.


Elements with atomic numbers over 92 are:

artificially produced in a laboratory setting.


Elements combine in many ways to produce ____ that make up all substances on Earth.


A tool used to organize information about the elements

The periodic table

The basis for the arrangement of atoms on the Periodic Table is:

the number of protons in its nucleus (the atomic number)

The information on the periodic table can be used to predict:

chemical reactivity


The boxes for all of the elements are arranged in increasing order of:

atomic number


The elements have increasing _________ character as you read from left to right across the table



These are along the stair-step line.


The metalloids have properties of both:

Metals and nonmetals

These are located to the right of the stair step line.



These tend to lose electrons in chemical reactions.


In chemical reactions, metals tend to these.

positive ions

These tend to gain electrons in chemical reactions, forming negative ions.


Gaining or losing electrons makes an atom this.

an ion

Gaining or losing neutrons makes an atom this.

an isotope


Gaining or losing a proton makes an atom into this.

a completely different element

The number of outer energy level electrons.


This determines an element's chemical properties or chemical reactivity.

The number of electrons in the outermost energy level.

The vertical columns in the table

Groups or families

Elements in each group have similar properties because they have this.

The same number of electrons in the outermost energy level.

The horizontal rows on the Periodic Table


Atoms react to form chemically stable substances that are held together by these.

Chemical bonds

To become chemically stable, atoms do one of these.

Gain, lose or share electrons.


When two elements react chemically, these are formed.

Binary compounds

When a metallic element reacts with a nonmetallic element, their atoms gain and lose electrons respectively, forming these.

Ionic bonds

Generally, when two nonmetals react, atoms share electrons, forming these.

Covalent bonds

Matter can undergo ________ and ________ changes.

physical and chemical

In ____ changes, the chemical composition of the substances does not change.


In _______ changes, different substances are formed.


This law states that regardless of how substances within a closed system are changed, the total mass remains the same.

The Law of Conservation of Matter

Which law states that energy cannot be created or destroyed only changed from one form to another?


The Law of Conservation of Energy


Changes that take place in a chemical reaction can be represented by a:


Chemical equation


The chemical formulas of the _____ are written on the left.




In a chemical equation, an arrow indicates:


A change to a new substance


Chemical formulas of the ______ are written on the right.




Two broad types of chemical reactions are:


Exothermic and endothermic


A chemical reaction in which energy is released is:


A chemical reaction in which energy is absorbed is:


Nuclear energy is energy stored in the

nucleus of the atom

A _____ reaction releases energy by joining the atoms' nuclei together.




A _____ reaction releases energy by splitting the nuclei of atoms.


Nuclear reactions can produce large amounts of energy using:

a small amount of matter

What are the negative affects of using nuclear energy?


problems with nuclear waste storage and disposal


The ability to do work is the definition of:


Energy exists in these two states:


potential energy and kinetic energy


Potential energy is energy stored because of:


position or chemical composition

Kinetic energy is:

energy of motion

The amount of kinetic energy associated with an object depends on:

the mass and velocity of the moving object.


Important forms of energy include:


light, heat, chemical, electrical, mechanical, and nuclear energy.


Sound is a form of:


mechanical energy


Energy can be ________ from one type to another.




In any energy conversion, some of the energy is lost in the environment as:


Atoms and molecules are:



always in motion (except at Kelvin 0)


Most substances_______ when heated.




The only situation where theoretically there is no atomic/molecular motion is:

absolute zero (-273C or 0K)


Are heat and temperature the same thing?




As heat energy is added to or taken away from a system, does the temperature always change?




During a phase change (freezing, melting condensing, boiling, and vaporizing), what happens to the water temperature?


there is no change in temperature while the phase change is occurring


Why is there no temperature change during a phase change?


Energy is being used to make or break bonds between molecules.


Describe a graph of a phase change.


It shows line of temp. going steadily up, and then leveling off for each phase change.

What produces sound?




What form of energy is sound?


mechanical energy


Sound travels in ______ waves.



Sound needs a ____ in which to travel.


a medium (solid, liquid, or gas)


What are some of the characteristics of all waves?


wavelength, frequency, and amplitude.


A ________ wave consists of a repeating pattern of compressions and rarefactions. 




A _____ is measured as the distance from one compression to the next or the distance from one rarefaction to the next rarefaction.



Sound travels _____ than light.


much slower


In a compression wave, matter vibrates in the _____ direction in which the wave travels.




As wavelength increases, frequency ______.




On what two things does the speed of sound depend:


the medium through which the waves travel and the temperature of the medium


Reflection and interference patterns are used in ultrasonic technology, including sonar and medical diagnosis.  True or false



In a compression wave, label and describe:
wavelength, compression, rarefaction and frequency

Light travels in _____ until it strikes an object.


straight lines


What happens to light when it strikes an object?

It can be reflected, absorbed, or transmitted

As light waves travel through different media, what happens to them? They change speed

When light waves travel through different media, the change of speed may result in:




Light is a form of _____ energy.




Light moves in _____ waves.




A transverse wave moves at _____  to the direction the energy travels.

right angles

There is an ____ proportion between frequency and wavelength.




Electromagnetic waves are arranged on the electromagnetic spectrum by _____ .




All types of electromagnetic radiation travel at the speed of:




All types of electromagnetic radiation travel at the speed of light, but differ in:


The electromagnetic spectrum includes:


gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, radio and microwaves

The lowest energy waves are:


radio waves


Radio waves have the _____ wavelength and ___ frequency.


longest; lowest


The highest energy waves are:


gamma waves


Gamma waves have the _______ wavelength and the ___ frequency.

shortest; highest


Visible light lies ______ of the electromagnetic spectrum and makes up_________ of the electromagnetic spectrum.

in the middle; only a small portion
Compare a longitudinal wave and a transverse wave.
Show the frequency of a light wave

Show the wavelength and amplitude of a light wave

Describe examples of refraction. A spoon in a cup of water looks bent or broken because the speed of light changes in different media.

Refraction causes a rainbow effect as white light passes through a prism.

What is a force?


A push or pull


What unit is used to measure force?




What can a force cause an object to do?

Move, stop moving, change speed, or change direction

The change in position of an object per unit of time is:


What can have a positive or a negative value depending on the direction of the change in position?




What always has a positive value and is non-directional.




The motion of all objects is described by:


Newton's three laws of motion


The change in velocity per unit of time:




An object moving with constant velocity has:

no acceleration

A decrease in velocity is:

negative acceleration or deceleration

A distance-time graph for acceleration is always:


a curve


Objects moving with circular motion are constantly:


Why are objects moving with circular motion constantly accelerating?

Because direction, and hence velocity, is constantly changing.

Are mass and weight equivalent?

What is weight? Weight is a measure of the force due to gravity acting on a mass

______ is done when an object is moved through a distance in the direction of the applied force.


A device that makes work easier is a:

Simple machine

What are the different purposes of simple machines?

To change the effort needed (mechanical advantage; to change the direction or distance to which the force is applied; to change the speed at which the resistance moves; or a combination of these.


The work put into a machine is always greater than the work output due to:




The ratio of workout put to work input is called:




Formula for speed speed+distance/time (s=d/t

Force=mass x acceleration (F=ma)

Formula for Work Work = force x distance (W=Fd)
Formula for Power

Power = work/time ((P=Wt)


What is Newton's First Law of Motion? An object in motion tends to stay in motion, and an object at rest tends to stay at rest, unless the object is acted upon by an outside force.
What is Newton's Second Law of Motion Accerleration=Force/Mass
Force= Mass X Acceleration

A=F/M or F=MA.

What is Newton's Third Law of Motion? Every action has an equal and opposite reaction.

A property of matter that affects the flow of electricity is _____.


Some substances have more ____ than others.



____ can cause electrons to be transferred from one object to another.