USII.3e Study Guide
The Progressive Movement, Organized Labor, Women's Suffrage, and the Temperance Movement

WHITE PRINT - Content outline from the VDOE curriculum guide BLACK  PRINT - Additional information

The student will demonstrate knowledge of how life changed after the Civil War by

e)       describing the impact of the Progressive Movement on child labor, working conditions, the rise of organized labor, women’s suffrage, and the temperance movement.

What were the negative effects of  industrialization?

·     Child labor

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Children often entered the work force at age eight or nine because parents needed their children's wages.  They worked in coal mines, textile mills and other factories. Without safety regulations, children were three times more likely to hurt themselves than adults.
·     Low wages, long hours 10-hour workdays were common and wages were barely enough to live on.  Workers had no health coverage or other benefits.
·     Unsafe working conditions No regulations on safety. Frequent accidents occurred in factories, especially involving children who might fall asleep or be less attentive. A tragic fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist factory in N.Y. killed 141 seamstresses who were unable to escape because exits were locked.

How did workers respond to the negative effects of industrialization?

The effects of industrialization led to the rise of organized labor and important workplace reforms.

Rise of organized labor:

·     Formation of unions—American Federation of Labor

AFL pushed for issues like higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions. It was strongest in the skilled trade, not the factories.  Preferred bargaining over strikes.

·     Strikes—Homestead Strike
1892 - Illustrated Weekly - Labor troubles at Homestead, PA -    Click to enlarge

In the late 1800's, strikes occurred all the time, often ending in violence and little gain for the workers. In 1892, 13 men were killed in a battle between striking steelworkers and strikebreakers at Carnegie's Homestead steel plant in Pittsburgh.
The strike turned many Americans  against unions and organized labor, which they blamed for the violence.

How did the reforms of the Progressive Movement change the United States?

Progressive Movement workplace reforms:

·     Improved safety conditions

Progressive Movement - includes different reform movements that dealt with problems caused by massive immigration, urbanization, and big business. Reformers wanted laws to protect workers and poor people, to reform government and to regulate business.

Resulted in laws passed passed by states making employers legally responsible if their workers were injured or killed on the job.

·     Reduced work hours States gradually began to reduce work hours, especially for women and children.
·     Placed restrictions on child labor States started to place restrictions on child labor, though some of the state laws were declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.

What were the results of the women's suffrage movement?

Women’s suffrage:

·     Increased educational opportunities

By 1900, one-third of college students were women. Educated women began demanding the right to vote.
·     Attained voting rights   Growing numbers of educated women were becoming angry that they could not vote.  In large cities, women campaigned hard for suffrage, and gradually more and more states allowed women to vote.  The important role played by women workers in World War II tipped the balance in favor of granting women suffrage.
·     Women gained the right to vote with passage of the 19th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America. In 1920, the 19th Amendment was adopted. It made it illegal for any state or for the federal government to deny women the right to vote.
·     Susan B. Anthony worked for women’s suffrage. During the 1800's, Anthony was one of the leaders of the women's suffrage movement, and fought for women to win the right to vote.

What was the Temperance Movement?

·     Composed of groups opposed to the making and consuming of alcohol

Temperance Movement - wanted to limit or ban the use of alcohol. Thought drinking was a serious threat to family life. Mostly Protestants. Associated drinking with Irish Catholics.
·     Supported 18th Amendment prohibiting the manufacture, sale, and transport of alcoholic beverages 18th Amendment, banning manufacture or sale of alcohol,  adopted in 1919.

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